Javascript – Object Wrapper for Primitives

Note: This is part of Javascript learning roadmap.

Duration: 2-3 minutes

Level: beginner

Objective: Understanding how helper function can be used on primitives in Javascript

The confusion

The primitives data types in Javascript are number, string, boolean, undefined and null. They are immutable (incapable of being changed) and passed by value. One of the most common source of confusion for developers that come from other languages to Javascript is that even string is a primitive.

However, JS provides a large tools for manipulating booleans, numbers and especially strings. Let’s see an example:

var s1 = "hello world";
var s2 = s1.substring(6);
console.log(s2);  // "world"

“There is no way string is a primitive!” would say almost every developer with experience in other languages.   If I would tell you that this example works, you would starting to thing that I contradict myself. And you have every right to do so. Seeing this code makes you convinced that string cannot be a primitive data type, it has a function .substring. Actually it has many others, so how is possible that string is still a primitive? The short answer is: object wrappers for primitives.

What are object wrappers?

Javascript provides three special reference types that are meant to ease interaction with primitive values: the Boolean type, the Number type and the String type.  They can be used explicitly in code, but their main power is the fact that many of their actions are behind the scenes.

Let’s see what really happens in the example above! Any time a string value is accessed in read mode, the following steps occur:

  • create an instance of type String()
  • call the specific method on instance
  • destroy the instance

The code is actually equivalent to:

var s1 = "hello world";
var wrapper = new String(s1);  // this happens behind the scenes
var s2 = wrapper.substring(6);
delete wrapper; // this happens behind the scenes

JS helps us not to don’t type the extra steps every time we use a string manipulation function. They are so convenient that many developers use them for years without knowing they exist or how they work. It’s important though to understand why these primitives data types seems to have so much power in Javascript.

Also, the lifecycle of an automatically generated wrapper is very short. The object is used for one line of code and then is deleted, so you can use them without worrying about the memory.

Although is possible to use the wrappers explicitly, it’s better to avoid them because they could generate confusion. An object wrapper is still an object and cannot be used as the native data types in every condition.


Here are the things you need to remember from this short article:

  • numbers, booleans and strings are primitive data types
  • JS provide three special objects, named object wrapper – Number(), Boolean() and String() – used to perform the work behind the scenes.
  • the object wrappers are automatically created when an operation is explicitly used in code and automatically destroyed after that.
  • it’s good to avoid using the wrappers explicitly in code (but is very important to understand how they work)

Thank you for your time!

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